The Panguitch Historic District in Panguitch, Utah was added to the National Register of Historic Places (#06001068) on November 16, 2006.
The original Panguitch town site (circa 1864) is roughly rectangular in shape. Plats A and B consisted of sixty blocks arranged in seven tiers of seven blocks with an extra tier of four blocks at the north, end and two tiers (five and two blocks) at the southwest corner. The original plats were bounded by 400 North, 400 East, 500 South and 300 West streets. A few later “additions” at the edges were in place at the time of a resurvey in 1953.
The streets and blocks at the northeast and northwest (where Panguitch Creek is located) corner were never fully developed. The four blocks at the bottom of the southeast quadrant were only partially developed. Several large parcels were added historically on the north to 700 North and on the east to 600 West, to accommodate the extension of the commercial district along Highway 89. The west end of Center Street was extended to include nine acres of land where the first Panguitch High School was located (destroyed by fire). This land now belongs to the Forest Service, but is not included in the district. Limited historical development also took place along west 175 North Street.
According to a 1917 Sanborn map of Panguitch, these boundaries were the city limits of Panguitch at the time. The core of the current city limits are similar to the historical limits; however, the current city limits extend
further north, south, and east following development along the main highways. To the west, the city limits extend approximately one mile between 175 North and 300 South. This acreage has been annexed, but not yet developed. The historic district resembles the historic city limits, including extensions along Highway 89 where historic development can be found. In most cases, the district includes buildings on both sides of the
boundary streets. The development patterns of the district are distinct and easily define the area. Beyond the boundaries lies mainly open land. There is scattered new residential development at the corners of the original
town site and extending just beyond the boundaries of the district. The boundaries of the historic district do not include areas at each of the four corners that are dominated by new development, including a new subdivision at the south end of town. The boundaries have been drawn to encompass the highest concentration of historic buildings that meet the requirements for historic significance.
Settlement and Resettlement Period. 1864-1882:
The extant architecture of Panguitch’s settlement period is distinguished by the use of locally available materials and a pioneer builder’s vernacular. Fourteen contributing buildings were built in the settlement period. Although the first families lived in wagon boxes, tents, or crude dugouts, a few cabins were built within the town plat between 1864 and 1866. The residents were forced to leave due to conflicts with Native Americans in the area. When settlers returned to Panguitch in 1871, the dwellings had not been disturbed and it is possible that some of the town’s extant log cabins date from the first settlement period, but no documentation has proven any buildings from that date. Log cabins were the first semi-permanent homes; however, they were considered temporary structures and most were converted to outbuildings or later demolished. As is the case for many Utah communities, there is a possibility that more in-depth research may identify early log buildings as portions of enlarged or altered buildings within the historic district.8 The survey identified five extant log buildings. Most are similar to the building at 389 E. 200 South (built circa 1870), which is a single cell dwelling with classical symmetry. A slightly later example is at 91 E. 200 North (built circa 1875), which has more defined features and a rear ell. Other early wood buildings and outbuildings may date from this period. An interesting example is the first Panguitch jail, built circa 1880, which is a square building of stacked lumber topped with a pyramidal roof.
According to Panguitch historians, adobe bricks were made in Panguitch, but due to the relative lateness of the settlement, fired bricks were available within a few years. While no adobe buildings were identified during the
survey, some may exist under stucco and other veneers, for example, the house at 275 S. 100 East (built circa 1875). Adobe was frequently used as an insulation material, typically as part of the inner lining of early brick houses or between the studs of a frame house. The first Panguitch brickyard was established by 1875 in the southeast corner of the historic town site. The Prince House at 185 S. 300 East is locally accepted as the town’s first house built of fired brick in 1875. These early brick houses are mostly symmetrical hall-parlor or central-passage type dwellings with modest Classical, Greek Revival, or Early Gothic Revival ornamentation. One of the oldest surviving commercial buildings on Main Street, the Garfield Exchange, was built at the end of this period in 1882 and is an unusual example of a temple-front commercial building. The Richards-Judd House at 506 N. Main Street, is a rare stone building (circa 1871), and was built before the brickyards were in operation.
Agriculture. Ranching and Commerce Period. 1883-1914
Approximately thirty-eight percent of contributing buildings were constructed during this period, including many of the largest and most ornate buildings in Panguitch. The majority of buildings from this period are residential with a handful of commercial and institutional examples. Many of the homes are similar to those built in the previous period, but the asymmetrical types and eclectic styles of the Victorian period dominate the
domestic architecture of Panguitch in this period.
During this period, red brick residences became ubiquitous in Panguitch. There are a few exceptions, but the vast majority of contributing buildings are of brick masonry. For a few years, the classical house types and styles were built in Panguitch. The Cameron House at 95 W. Center is a Victorian Gothic example (built circa 1890). However, most of the buildings of the period can be stylistically classified as Victorian Eclectic, which was popular in Utah between 1885 and 1910. Victorian-era dwellings are characterized by asymmetrical facades, irregular massing, segmental arched window hoods and patterned wood shingles on the gable ends. New house types such as the cross wing and central block with projecting bays were introduced during this era. The Delong House at 117 S. Main is a modest example of Victorian-era asymmetry, which was popular in Panguitch after 1890. The Haycock House at 109 W. 100 North is an example of a central-passage house that became a Victorian cross wing (built in 1887). The Haycock property includes a brick outbuilding with a pyramidal roof. The Panguitch landscape includes several examples of these unusual outbuildings. While a few were probably granaries, the presence of Victorian-era segmental arched window hoods indicates at least three may have been used as summer kitchens with granaries attached and then later converted to residences. Across the street from the Haycock House is another example with fewer modifications.
Through the 1890s, the brick houses of Panguitch became increasingly more elaborate as residents became more prosperous. The Sargeant House at 220 N. 200 East (built circa 1890) is an early example of the Queen Anne style. A more elaborate example is the 21/2-story Henrie house at 182 S. 200 East (built circa 1905), which features a prominent round tower. The last and most ornate example of the Victorian Gothic is the Steele House at 210 S. 100 East, built in 1897 and nicknamed “nine gables”. The most prominent residence in town is the Hatch House, built in 1896, and located on a full acre at 329 E. Center. The Hatch House is a 2 1/2-story brick central-block-with-projecting-wings house type with a mix of Victorian Eclectic and Queen Anne elements such as the square tower. Associated with many
of these buildings are extant outbuildings from the period. One unique outbuilding is the round water tower, constructed of brick circa 1890, for the Henrie family at approximately 390 E. 300 South. More typical are several English dairy and hay barns, such as those associated with a non-contributing house at 418 S. 200 West. There are several other outbuilding types, including brick summer kitchens, granaries, creameries and smokehouses, stacked lumber granaries similar to the old jail, and the traditional granary of the Mormon landscape, the “inside-out” version.
One of the most important institutional buildings of the period was the Garfield County Courthouse, a Victorian Romanesque Revival building constructed in 1908. The Panguitch Social Hall was built in 1906 and the façade rebuilt after a fire in 1924. The extant building features elements of the Victorian-era with a nod to the Prairie School, and thus straddles two historic periods. Another transitional building, the Panguitch Tithing Office has been described as the “one of the finest and most flamboyant [buildings] built by the LDS Church”. The Victorian Eclectic building was
constructed in 1907 and was one of the first buildings constructed of the softer, darker Panguitch brick. The two-part commercial block at 45 N. Main Street is a typical commercial building of the period. A relatively rare example is the Southern Utah Equitable Building (1906) on Main Street. This building is constructed of brick masonry with a pressed sheet metal façade.
At the end of this period, architecture in Utah moved from the Victorian-era to early twentieth-century styles and types. In Panguitch, a few Victorian-era residences were updated with bungalow-style porches. One example is 90 S. 200 East, built by the owner, James Worthen, in 1885, and given a bungalow porch (circa 1910). The foursquare, with its distinctive pyramidal roof was popular in Utah between 1900 and 1920. Panguitch has several excellent examples. Most are like the Daly House at 93 E. 100 North, a one-story brick residence built around 1910. Of particular note are several residences that represent a hybrid of the Victorian and Bungalow styles. An excellent example is the Henrie House at 320 E. 300 South, built circa 1905. The one-story brick residence is unusually large with two primary elevations. The house is a central-block with Victorian and Bungalow-era ornamentation. An example of a transitional bungalow, the Henrie House is a precursor to the distinctive Panguitch house which developed in the 1920s and 1930s.
Community Development and the Rise of Tourism Period. 1915-1939
Approximately forty percent of contributing resources were built during this period. With only a few exceptions, most of the domestic architecture of Panguitch constructed in this period can be divided into two categories: Arts and Crafts-style bungalows, popular between 1915 and 1925, and the distinctly Panguitch version of the period cottage, built throughout the 1920s and 1930s. A large number of residences in both categories were built with Panguitch red brick. The few houses constructed of other materials and colors of brick stand out. The house at 50 W. 200 South is a beautifully maintained example of a frame bungalow (circa 1920). A small clipped-gable bungalow built of concrete block at 213 N. 200 West (built in 1924) is another conspicuous deviation [Photograph 34]. Examples of yellow brick, such as the hybrid bungalow at 110 W. 100 North (circa 1925) are relatively scarce. Features such as the yellow brick, the cobblestone foundation, and the summer kitchen in the rear set this property apart. The Bigelow House at 35 W. 100 North (built circa 1930) is a distinctive period cottage with a square tower and the only residence in Panguitch constructed entirely of purple brick.
The bungalow was extremely popular in Utah between 1910 and 1920, and quickly replaced the Victorian cottage as the house of choice. By 1915, the bungalow was ubiquitous in Utah, both as tract housing in larger cities and as infill on every block of rural towns. There are sixty-nine contributing bungalows in Panguitch, with the majority heavily influenced by the Arts & Crafts movement of the early twentieth century and built of round-edge Panguitch brick. In fact, relatively unadorned bungalows, such as the example at 205 N. 100 West (circa 1915), are the exception rather than the rule. Most Panguitch examples are similar to the Worthen House at 40 S. 200 East (built in 1915 according to the date in the gable trim), a square, rather than deep footprint, and an idiosyncratic mix of materials and ornamentation. The NR-listed Owens House is another excellent example of the Arts & Crafts movement. Two neighboring homes (built circa 1920) give an idea of the design individualism of a Panguitch bungalow. The bungalow at 105 E. 100 North uses red brick and three kinds of concrete block to produce an interestingly solid effect. In contrast, to the east, the Miller House at 121 E. 100 North, an Arts & Crafts bungalow of brick and cobblestone has a slightly incongruous French Norman tower. More traditional is the Ipson House at 15 N. 100 West (built in 1920). Several Panguitch bungalows were built in the late 1920s, well after the period cottage had become the prevailing house type in Utah. The Walker House at the edge of town (289 W. 400 South) was built in 1929.
There are 39 contributing residences in Panguitch that can be classified as period cottages. This total includes many that are central-block or foursquare hybrids of the English period cottage type. There a few traditional English-cottage style period cottages, such as 190 W. 100 South (built circa 1929). But many local builders of the period eschewed the traditional look for an eclectic fusion of the period cottage and earlier
stylistic elements. Victorian-era segmental arched window hoods, in particular, are characteristic of these houses. The house at 25 S. Main features a mix of bungalow and period-cottage elements (built circa 1925). Further north on Main is the Joseph House, built in 1939, which has a classical element: a broken apex pediment above the front door. The Schow House, built in 1938, at 190 N. 200 East features an English-gable on the façade, but does not resemble the traditional period cottage in other respects. The Cherrington House at 265 S. Main Street, built in 1936, has stucco and fauxtimbering in the front gable. The Dutch Colonial-style house at 161 N. 100 West (circa 1930) is the only Colonial Revival period cottage in Panguitch.
The period includes the construction of several significant institutional and commercial buildings. The Panguitch Carnegie Library (NR 1984-10-25) was built at 75 E. Center Street in 1918 in the neo-classical style with a touch of clinker brick. As noted, above the Panguitch Social Hall (NR 1998-11-12) was re-built in the Prairie School-style after 1924. Other important buildings include the Art Deco inspired Gem Theater at 115 N. Main Street (circa 1930); the LDS Church Second Ward Meetinghouse (Jacobethan & Greek Revival, built in 1930); and the Panguitch High School (built as a PWA project in 1938). Although many of the resources have been altered and are non-contributing, a USD A Forest Service complex, the Panguitch Administrative Site was established during this period in 1933-1936. However, the complex is not included within the boundaries of the district. The contributing object within the district is the Panguitch Fort Monument marking the location of the first fort, built of stone with a brass plaque in 1940.
World War II and Post-War Development. 1940-1964
The 1940s was a slow period of domestic construction in Panguitch with no particular trend or style being dominant. The distinct local red bricks of Panguitch were phased out by the 1940s and there was much greater variety of materials in this period. The Marshall House at 57 E. 300 North (built circa 1950) is similar in style and type to the houses of the previous period, but was constructed with narrow, rornan brick]. The Gerald and Mary Henrie House at 280 N. 100 West (built circa 1945) is done in the Minimal Traditionalstyle of early post World War II housing. The house at 55 N. 100 West is also Minimal Traditional in style, but features the picture-window corners popular by the 1950s. In contrast the Nyle & Blanche Henrie House at 49 S. 100 East is a stucco-covered Mission-style built in 1949. It is the only historic residence in Panguitch which comes close to representing the modern styles of the 1930s and 1940s. In the 1950s and early 1960s, the domestic architecture of Panguitch was represented by the
ranch/rambler types and styles popular in throughout Utah and the nation. An early example of striated red brick is found at 169 N. 300 East (built circa 1950) featuring decorative brickwork at the water table.
While there were few innovations in type or style, Panguitch builders remained creative in the use of materials. The ranch houses of Panguitch utilize all colors of brick in many different sizes (roman, atlas, slump block etc.). The ranch house at 151 E. 200 South (circa 1955) features intricately laid courses of multi-colored rornan brick. Skilled masonry was also at work in the roman/atlas brick courses of 360 S. 100 West (circa 1960). The historic district includes several examples of mobile homes, such as the one at 335 S. 300 West (circa 1960). Aluminum siding gained popularity during the 1950s and 1960s, both for remodeling older homes and sheathing newer ones (e.g. 241 S. 100 West, circa 1955). Two institutional buildings of the period are the Panguitch Hospital (completed in 1946), and the Panguitch Elementary School (circa 1955).
The most noteworthy change to the architectural inventory of Panguitch during this period was the construction of twelve motels on Main and Center Street. While there had been hotels all throughout the history of
Panguitch, they were primarily domestic-looking buildings or later small tourist cabins. The only extant example is the Cameron Hotel complex at 78 W. Center Street, a multi-resource property, which includes two houses (circa 1890 and 1935), a row of tourist cabins (circa 1910) and a commercial block remodeled in the 1950s. The motel building boom began around 1940 and ended in 1964 with the construction of the last motel court of the historic period. Of the twelve motels, only one is urban in design. The two-story Panguitch Inn Motel was built in 1940 at 50 N. Main Street. Although the façade has been slightly altered, the original design, for example a tunnel to the inner block parking, can be distinguished. The other motels are more traditional automobile courts and can be divided into two categories: individual/double cabins and the motel row. The earliest motels of the 1940s were built with an office in front and usually an L-shaped court of individual or double cabins. A good example is the Nelson/Bryce Canyon Motel at 310 N. Main Street (circa 1945). The Blue Pine Motel at 130 N. Main Street is a very domestic example of the motel row (circa 1950). An example from the early 1960s is the Adobe Sands Motel at 390 N. Main Street, which is a more modern interpretation of the motel row. The tourist industry was
also served by gas stations. The Utah Oil Company replaced an older building in the 1960s with a modernlooking station and canopy at 18 S. Main Street. The Panguitch Dental building, at 75 N. 200 East, is a rare example of modern architecture in Panguitch.
Late-Twentieth Century Development Period. 1965-2006:
In the 1960s and 1970s, the construction of the Interstate 15 freeway diverted traffic 30 miles west of Panguitch and Highway 89. This was a period of slow, but steady growth. The tourist industry continued to be an
important part of the economy, but no hotel rooms were added until the expansion of four existing motels in the 1980s. The Conoco Travel Center recently added the first new motel in 2000. Due to natural increases in
population and an influx of newcomers, Panguitch is having a construction boom. The new houses being built within the historic district are one-story ranch-type houses built as infill. Because the large lots allow for new construction without crowding and the setbacks have been maintained for the most part, the new houses do not detract from the qualities of the historic district (e.g. 167 E, 400 North, circa 1990). A few larger new homes and subdivision tracts at edges of the town have been excluded from the historic district.
There has some recent commercial development in Panguitch, primarily on Main and Center Streets. In many cases, new commercial buildings near the center of town have been constructed of brick and are compatible with their historic neighbors. The new Panguitch fire station at 46 N. 100 East is a good example. There has been a dramatic increase in the promotion of both the natural and historic resources the Panguitch area. The Main Street Association supports the Panguitch Historic District as a way to promote
heritage tourism in the city.