The Indian War years of 1865-72 brought bitter hardships to Sanpete and other central Utah areas. Different bands of Indians stealthily attacked settlers from their mountain hideouts, then fled to safety. Twenty-seven settlements were evacuated; two entire counties and portions of seven others were temporarily abandoned; seventy pioneers were slain and many wounded; hundreds of cattle and horses stolen. On Aug. 1, 1866, U.S. Indian Supt., Col. H.F. Head and Stake Pres. Orson Hyde obtained promise of peace from Chief Black Hawk. By Aug. 18, 1868, they had accomplished the hazardous feat of assembling a peace parley in Fort Ephraim on Hans Hansen’s lawn by a red cedar tree. Black Hawk calmed the defiant braves, a pipe of peace was passed, the treaty was signed and later ratified by U.S. Pres. Andrew Jackson. Black Hawk continued to help arrange peace parleys until other hostile chiefs had signed.
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